Everyday Care of Person with Alzheimer’s / Dementia

Healthy Eating and Alzheimer’s Disease

Eating healthy foods helps everyone stay well. It’s even more important for people with Alzheimer’s disease. Here are some tips for healthy eating.bag of healthy groceries

Buying and Preparing Food

When the person with Alzheimer’s disease lives with you:

  • Buy healthy foods such as vegetables, fruits, and whole-grain products. Be sure to buy foods that the person likes and can eat.
  • Give the person choices about what to eat—for example, “Would you like green beans or salad?”
  • Buy food that is easy to prepare, such as pre-made salads and single food portions.

It may be helpful to have someone else make meals or use a service such as Meals on Wheels America, which brings meals right to your home. For more information, contact Meals on Wheels America at 1-888-998-6325.

When a person with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease lives alone, you can buy foods that the person doesn’t need to cook. Call to remind him or her to eat.

Maintain Familiar Routines

Change can be difficult for a person with Alzheimer’s disease. Maintaining familiar routines and serving favorite foods can make mealtimes easier. They can help the person know what to expect and feel more relaxed. If a home health aide or other professional provides care, family members should tell this caregiver about the person’s preferences.

Try these tips:

  • View mealtimes as opportunities for social interaction. A warm and happy tone of voice can set the mood.
  • Be patient and give the person enough time to finish the meal.
  • Respect personal, cultural, and religious food preferences, such as eating tortillas instead of bread or avoiding pork.
  • If the person has always eaten meals at specific times, continue to serve meals at those times.
  • Serve meals in a consistent, familiar place and way whenever possible.
  • Avoid new routines, such as serving breakfast to a person who has never routinely eaten breakfast.

As Alzheimer’s progresses, familiar routines and food choices may need to be adapted to meet the person’s changing needs. For example, a family custom of serving appetizers before dinner can be preserved, but higher-calorie items might be offered to help maintain the person’s weight.

Stay Safe

In the early stage of Alzheimer’s, people’s eating habits usually do not change. When changes do occur, living alone may not be safe anymore. Look for these signs to see if living alone is no longer safe for the person with Alzheimer’s:

  • The person forgets to eat.
  • Food has burned because it was left on the stove.
  • The oven isn’t turned off.

Other difficulties, such as not sitting down long enough for meals and refusing to eat, can arise in the middle and late stages of the disease. These changes can lead to poor nourishment, dehydration, abnormally low blood pressure, and other problems.

Caregivers should monitor the person’s weight and eating habits to make sure he or she is not eating too little or too much. Other things to look for include appetite changes, the person’s level of physical activity, and problems with chewing or swallowing. Talk with the person’s doctor about changes in eating habits.

Tips to Make Mealtimes Easier for People with Alzheimer’s

  • Sticking to familiar foods and routines can make mealtimes easier for people with Alzheimer’s and their caregivers.
  • Maintaining familiar routines can help the person know what to expect and feel more relaxed.
  • Make the eating area quiet. Turn off the TV, radio, and computer / phone.
  • Offer just one food at a time instead of filling the plate or table with too many options.
  • Don’t rush. Be patient and give the person enough time to finish the meal.
  • Cut food into small pieces and make it soft enough to eat, which will help with chewing and swallowing.
  • A meal is a good opportunity for social interaction. You can set the mood with a warm and happy tone of voice.

Bathing, Dressing, and Grooming: Alzheimer’s Caregiving Tips

At some point, people with Alzheimer’s disease will need help bathing, combing their hair, brushing their teeth, and getting dressed. Because these are private activities, people may not want help. They may feel embarrassed about being naked in front of caregivers. They also may feel angry about not being able to care for themselves. Bar of soap and other grooming products

Bathing

Helping someone with Alzheimer’s disease take a bath or shower can be one of the hardest things you do. Planning can help make bath time better for both of you. If the person is afraid of bathing, follow his or her lifelong bathing habits, such as doing the bath or shower in the morning or before going to bed.

Safety Tips

To keep the person with Alzheimer’s safe during bath time:

  • Never leave a confused or frail person alone in the tub or shower.
  • Always check the water temperature before he or she gets in the tub or shower.
  • Use a hand-held shower head.
  • Use a rubber bath mat and safety bars in the tub.
  • Use a sturdy shower chair to support a person who is unsteady and to prevent falls. You can buy shower chairs at drug stores and medical supply stores.

Before Bathing

Before starting a bath or shower:

  • Get the soap, washcloth, towels, and shampoo ready.
  • Make sure the bathroom is warm and well lighted.
  • Play soft music if it helps to relax the person.
  • Be matter-of-fact about bathing. Say, “It’s time for a bath now.” Don’t argue about the need for a bath or shower.
  • Be gentle and respectful. Tell the person what you are going to do, step by step.
  • Make sure the water temperature is comfortable.
  • Don’t use bath oil. It can make the tub slippery and may cause urinary tract infections.

During a Bath or Shower

Allow the person with Alzheimer’s to do as much as possible. This protects his or her dignity and helps the person feel more in control. Here are other tips:

  • Put a towel over the person’s shoulders or lap. This helps him or her feel less exposed. Then use a sponge or washcloth to clean under the towel.
  • Distract the person by talking about something else if he or she becomes upset.
  • Give the person a washcloth to hold. This makes it less likely that he or she will try to hit you.

After Bathing

Try these suggestions:

  • Prevent rashes or infections by patting the person’s skin with a towel. Make sure the person is completely dry. Be sure to dry between folds of skin.
  • If the person is incontinent, use a protective ointment, such as petroleum jelly, around the rectum, vagina, or penis.
  • If the person has trouble getting in and out of the bathtub, do a sponge bath instead.

Other Bathing Tips

For most people, a full bath or shower two or three times a week is enough. Between full baths, a sponge bath to clean the face, hands, feet, underarms, and genitals is all you need to do every day. Also:

  • Washing the person’s hair in the sink with a hose attachment may be easier than doing it in the shower or bathtub.
  • Get professional help with bathing if it becomes too hard for you to do on your own.

Dressing

People with Alzheimer’s disease often need more time to dress. It can be hard for them to choose their clothes. They might wear the wrong clothing for the season. They also might wear colors that don’t go together or forget to put on a piece of clothing. Allow the person to dress on his or her own for as long as possible.

Other tips for dressing:

  • Lay out clothes in the order the person should put them on, such as underwear first, then pants, then a shirt, and then a sweater.
  • Hand the person one thing at a time, or give step-by-step dressing instructions.
  • Put away some clothes in another room to reduce the number of choices. Keep only one or two outfits in the closet or dresser.
  • Keep the closet locked if needed.
  • Buy three or four sets of the same clothes if the person wants to wear the same clothing every day.
  • Buy loose-fitting, comfortable clothing, such as sports bras, cotton socks and underwear, and sweat pants and shorts with elastic waistbands.
  • Avoid girdles, control-top pantyhose, knee-high nylons, high heels, and tight socks.
  • Use Velcro® tape or large zipper pulls for clothing instead of shoelaces, buttons, or buckles.
  • Try slip-on shoes that won’t slide off or shoes with Velcro® straps.

Grooming

When people feel good about how they look, they often feel better. Helping people with Alzheimer’s disease brush their teeth, shave, put on makeup, and get dressed can help them feel more like themselves.

Mouth Care

Here are some tips to help the person with Alzheimer’s care for his or her teeth and mouth.

  • Show the person how to brush his or her teeth. Go step by step. Remember to let the person do as much as possible.
  • Brush your teeth at the same time.
  • Help the person clean his or her dentures.
  • Ask the person to rinse his or her mouth with water after each meal and use mouthwash once a day.
  • Try a long-handled, angled, or electric toothbrush if you need to brush the person’s teeth.
  • Take the person to see a dentist. Some dentists specialize in treating people with Alzheimer’s. Ask the dentist how often the person should be seen.

Other Grooming

Here are some other suggestions for grooming:

  • Encourage a woman to wear makeup if she has always used it. If needed, help her put on powder and lipstick. Don’t use eye makeup.
  • Encourage a man to shave, and help him as needed. Use an electric razor for safety.
  • Take the person to the barber or beauty shop. Some barbers or hairstylists may come to your home.
  • Keep the person’s nails clean and trimmed.

Managing Medicines for a Person With Alzheimer’s

People with Alzheimer’s disease may take medicines to treat the disease itself, mood or behavior changes, and other medical conditions. Caregivers can ensure that medicines are taken safely and correctly. Here are some tips to help you manage medications for someone with Alzheimer’s disease.Older person holding a pill box

Learn the basics

Know each medicine (prescription and over-the-counter) the person with Alzheimer’s disease takes. Ask the doctor or pharmacist:

  • Why is this medicine being used?
  • What positive effects should I look for, and when?
  • How long will the person need to take it?
  • What is the dose and how often should he or she take the medicine?
  • What if the person misses a dose?
  • What are the side effects, and what can I do about them?
  • Can this medicine cause problems if taken with other medicines?

Managing medications is easier if you have a complete list of them. The list should show the name of the medicine, the doctor who prescribed it, how much the person with Alzheimer’s takes, and how often. Keep the list in a safe place at home, and make a copy to keep in your purse or wallet or save a picture on your phone. Bring it with you when you visit the person’s doctor or pharmacist.

People with Alzheimer’s should be monitored when they start taking a new drug. Follow the doctor’s instructions and report any unusual symptoms right away. Also, let the doctor know before adding or changing any medications.

Use medicines safely

People with Alzheimer’s disease often need help taking their medicines. If the person lives alone, you may need to call and remind him or her or leave notes around the home. A pillbox allows you to put pills for each day in one place. Some pillboxes come with alarms that remind a person to take the medicines.

As Alzheimer’s gets worse, you will need to keep track of the person’s medicines. You also will need to make sure the person takes the medicines or give the medicines to him or her.

Some people with Alzheimer’s take medicines to treat behavior problems such as restlessness, anxiety, depression, trouble sleeping, and aggression. Experts agree that medicines to treat behavior problems should be used only after other strategies that don’t use medicine have been tried. Talk with the person’s doctor about which medicines are safest and most effective. With these types of medicines, it is important to:

  • Use the lowest dose possible.
  • Watch for side effects such as confusion and falls.
  • Allow the medicine a few weeks to take effect.

It is recommended that people with Alzheimer’s should NOT take anticholinergic drugs. These drugs are used to treat many medical problems such as sleeping problems, stomach cramps, incontinence, asthma, motion sickness, and muscle spasms. Side effects, such as confusion, can be serious for a person with Alzheimer’s. These drugs should NOT be given to a person with Alzheimer’s disease. You might talk with the person’s doctor about other options. Examples of these drugs include:

  • Ipratropium — brand name Atrovent
  • Dimenhydrinate — brand name Dramamine
  • Diphenhydramine — includes brand names such as Benadryl and Nytol

Some people, especially those with late-stage Alzheimer’s, may have trouble swallowing pills. In this case, ask the pharmacist if the medicine can be crushed or taken in liquid form. Here are other ways to make sure medicines are taken safely:

  • Keep all medications locked up.
  • Check that the label on each prescription bottle has the drug name and dose, patient’s name, dosage frequency, and expiration date.
  • Call the doctor or pharmacist if you have questions about any medicine.

Medicines to treat Alzheimer’s disease

Several prescription drugs are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to help manage symptoms in people with Alzheimer’s disease. For some people, these medications may help slow down certain problems, such as memory loss. Slowing down memory loss can allow many people with Alzheimer’s disease to be more comfortable and independent for a longer time.

In 2021, the FDA approved a new medication, aducanumab, through the accelerated approval pathway. The medication helps to reduce amyloid deposits in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s but has not yet been shown to affect clinical symptoms or outcomes, such as progression of cognitive decline or dementia.

Most medicines work best for people in the early or middle stages of Alzheimer’s. However, it is important to understand that none of these medicines can cure or stop Alzheimer’s.

Medicines to treat other medical conditions

Many people with Alzheimer’s disease also have other medical conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. They may take different medicines for these conditions. It’s important to track all medicines they take and take the list with you to every visit to a doctor.

Getting Help with Alzheimer’s Caregiving

Some caregivers need help when the person is in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Other caregivers look for help when the person is in the later stages of Alzheimer’s. It’s okay to seek help whenever you need it.

Alzheimer's caregiver calling ADEAR Center for information and referral services

As the person moves through the stages of Alzheimer’s, he or she will need more care. One reason is that medicines used to treat Alzheimer’s disease can only control symptoms; they cannot cure the disease. Symptoms, such as memory loss and confusion, will get worse over time.

Because of this, you will need more help. You may feel that asking for help shows weakness or a lack of caring, but the opposite is true. Asking for help shows your strength. It means you know your limits and when to seek support.

Build a support system

Take Care of Yourself as a Caregiver infographic. Click to open page with full description.

According to many caregivers, building a local support system is a key way to get help. Your support system might include a caregiver support group, the local chapter of the Alzheimer’s Association, family, friends, and faith groups.

Direct services: Groups that help with everyday care in the home

Here is a list of services that can help you care for the person with Alzheimer’s at home. Find out if these services are offered in your area.

Home care service

Home care services—not to be confused with home health care services—send a home care aide to your home to help you care for a person with Alzheimer’s. These aides provide personal care and/or company for the person. They do not provide skilled medical care. Aides are usually not medical professionals. They assist with daily activities such as bathing and dressing and may even help with light housekeeping, transportation, and errands. Home care aides may come for a few hours or stay for 24 hours.

What to know about costs:

  • Home care services generally charge by the hour. Some services charge a flat rate for staying overnight.
  • Medicare and private health insurance may cover some home care costs, though nonmedical care is generally not covered. Check with your health plan.
  • Long-term care insurance may cover personal care and homemaker services.

How to find them:

  • Ask your doctor or other healthcare professional, family, and friends to recommend home care services in your area.

Home health care services

Home health care aides are skilled, licensed medical professionals who come to your home and help you recover from a hospital stay, illness, or injury. Aides provide skilled nursing care, physical, occupational, or speech therapy, and other medical services coordinated by your doctor. You need a doctor’s order for home health care services.

What to know about costs:

  • Medicare or private health insurance may cover skilled medical care services in your home. Check with your insurer before signing an agreement.
  • You must pay all costs not covered by Medicare, Medicaid, or insurance.

How to find them:

  • Your doctor, health care professional, or hospital discharge social worker can give you a list of agencies that serve your area.

Meal services

Meal services bring hot meals to the person’s home or your home. The delivery staff do not feed the person.

What to know about costs:

  • The person with Alzheimer’s must qualify for the service based on local guidelines.
  • Some groups do not charge for their services. Others may charge a small fee.

Adult day care services

Adult day care services provide a safe environment, activities, and staff who pay attention to the needs of the person with Alzheimer’s in an adult day care facility. They also provide transportation. The facility may pick up the person with Alzheimer’s, take him or her to day care, and then return the person home. Adult day care services provide a much-needed break for you.

What to know about costs:

  • Adult day care services charge by the hour.
  • Most insurance plans don’t cover these costs. You must pay all costs not covered by insurance.

Respite services

Respite services provide short-term care for the person with Alzheimer’s at home, in a healthcare facility, or at an adult day center. The care may last for as short as a few hours or as long as several weeks. These services allow you to get a break to rest or go on a vacation.

What to know about costs:

  • Respite services charge by the hour or by the number of days or weeks that services are provided.
  • Most insurance plans do not cover these costs. You must pay all costs not covered by insurance or other funding sources.
  • Medicare will cover most of the cost of up to 5 days in a row of respite care in a hospital or skilled nursing facility for a person receiving hospice care.
  • Medicaid also may offer assistance.
  • There may be other sources of funding in your State.

Geriatric care managers

Geriatric care managers make a home visit and suggest needed services. They also can help you get needed services.

What to know about costs:

  • Geriatric care managers charge by the hour.
  • Most insurance plans don’t cover these costs.
  • Medicare does not pay for this service.
  • You will probably have to pay for this service.

Counseling from a mental health professional

Mental health or social work professionals help you understand your feelings, such as anger, sadness, or feeling out of control and overwhelmed, and help you deal with any stress you may be feeling. They also help develop plans for unexpected or sudden events.

What to know about costs:

  • Professional mental health counselors charge by the hour. There may be big differences in the rates you would be charged from one counselor to another.
  • Some insurance companies will cover some of these costs.
  • Medicare or Medicaid may cover some of these costs.
  • You must pay all costs not covered by Medicare, Medicaid, or insurance.

How to find them:

  • It’s a good idea to ask your health insurance staff which counselors and services, if any, your insurance plan covers. Then check with your doctor, local family service agencies, and community mental health agencies for referrals to counselors.

Hospice services

Hospice services provide care for a person who is near the end of life and is no longer receiving treatment to cure his or her serious illness. Hospice services keep the person who is dying as comfortable and pain-free as possible in the person’s home or a hospice facility. They also support the family by providing end-of-life care. You can stop hospice services at any time if you wish to receive curative treatments again.

What to know about costs:

  • Medicare, Medicaid, Veterans Health Administration or private insurance plans may cover all hospice costs.
  • If you receive hospice services in an assisted living facility or nursing home, you may need to pay room and board. You must pay all costs not covered by Medicare, Medicaid, or other insurance.
  • Some nonprofit organizations and hospice providers help cover hospice costs on a sliding scale for low-income patients.
  • Once you’ve chosen to receive hospice services, any medicines or treatments intended to cure your terminal illness will not be covered.

Activities To Do With a Family Member or Friend Who Has Alzheimer’s Disease

Older adult with Alzheimer's playing a board game with a friend.

It’s important to spend meaningful time with a family member or friend who has Alzheimer’s disease or a related dementia. Participating together in activities your loved one enjoys can help improve their quality of life and manage behavior changes that may come with the disease, such as sleep problems, agitation, and aggression. It can also help grow and strengthen your connection. However, it may be difficult to know what activities you can safely do with your loved one.

Explore examples below. You may need to modify these activities based on the person’s preferences and abilities.

Activities to do around the house

  • Make a memory book — look through old pictures together and create a scrapbook.
  • Water house and garden plants.
  • Listen to their favorite music.
  • Watch their favorite show or movie.
  • Do an arts and craft project such as painting or drawing.
  • Knit or crochet together.
  • Cuddle, feed, or brush a household pet.
  • Present an instrument the person used to play such as a piano or guitar. Play, whistle, or sing along.
  • Sweep or vacuum.

Activities to keep moving

  • Go for a walk on a safe path clear of branches or other obstacles.
  • Dance to music the person likes or tap your feet.
  • Go to the gym — try walking next to each other on the treadmill or using a stationary bike.
  • Lift weights or household items such as filled water bottles.
  • Plant flowers.
  • Stretch or do yoga.
  • Go to a local museum.
  • Participate in a water aerobics class.

Activities to engage the mind

  • Play a board or card game.
  • Work on a puzzle together.
  • Read poems or a book together.
  • Write cards to other family members and friends.
  • Play a computer game.

Activities that promote healthy eating

  • Cook together — ask the person about their favorite meal and work together to make it. Or look up healthy cooking videos online and try to make them yourselves.
  • Plant vegetables together in the garden or in pots.
  • Have a picnic together — bring healthy food options the person likes. Bring a portable or camping chair if the person has trouble sitting on the ground.

Activities to stay socially engaged

  • Join a dementia-friendly exercise class.
  • Invite friends over for tea or snacks.
  • Plan a video call with a group of friends.
  • Join a book club together or start your own with friends and family.
  • Host a family game night.

Activities to do with children

  • Older man with Alzheimer's painting a picture with his granddaughter
  • Read stories out loud.
  • Look through a photo album.
  • Paint with watercolors or draw a picture.
  • Play with building blocks.
  • Listen to music or sing.
  • Make tie-dye shirts.

Adapting Activities for People With Alzheimer’s Disease

Doing things we enjoy gives us pleasure and adds meaning to our lives. People with Alzheimer’s disease need to be active and do things they enjoy. However, it’s not easy for them to plan their days and do different tasks.

Older adult with Alzheimer's smiling and petting a dog
Credit: Victoria Ruvkun

People with Alzheimer’s may have trouble deciding what to do each day, which could make them fearful and worried or quiet and withdrawn, or they may have trouble starting tasks. Remember, the person is not being lazy. He or she might need help organizing the day or doing an activity.

Activity Planning

Plan activities that the person with Alzheimer’s enjoys in your daily routine, and try to do them at a similar time each day. He or she can be a part of the activity or just watch. Here are things you can do to help the person enjoy the activity:

  • Match the activity with what the person with Alzheimer’s can do.
  • Choose activities that can be fun for everyone.
  • Help the person get started.
  • Decide if he or she can do the activity alone or needs help.
  • Watch to see if the person gets frustrated.
  • Make sure he or she feels successful and has fun.
  • Let him or her watch if that is more enjoyable.

Try These Activities

The person with Alzheimer’s disease can do different activities each day. This keeps the day interesting and fun. Here are some daily activities people with Alzheimer’s may enjoy:

  • Household chores: Wash dishes, set the table, prepare food, sweep the floor, dust, sort mail and clip coupons, sort socks and fold laundry, sort recycling materials or other things.
  • Cooking and baking: Decide what is needed to prepare the dish; measure, mix, and pour; tell someone else how to prepare a recipe; watch others prepare food.
  • Exercise: Take a walk together, watch TV programs made for older people, use a stationary bike, use stretching bands, throw a soft ball or balloon back and forth, lift weights or household items such as soup cans.
  • Music and dancing: Play music, talk about the music and the singer, ask what the person with Alzheimer’s was doing when the song was popular, sing or dance to well-known songs, attend a concert or musical program.
  • Pets: Feed, groom, walk, sit and hold a pet.
  • Gardening: Take care of indoor or outdoor plants, plant flowers and vegetables, water the plants when needed, talk about how much the plants are growing.
  • Visiting with Children: Play a simple board game, read stories or books, visit family members who have small children, walk in the park or around schoolyards, go to school events, talk about fond memories from childhood.

Going Out

People in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease may still enjoy going out to places they enjoyed in the past. For example, the person might enjoy going to a favorite restaurant, park, shopping mall, swimming pool, museum, or theater. Keep going on these outings as long as you are comfortable with them.

Plan Ahead for Outings

Here are some tips to make outings fun:

  • Plan outings for the time of day when the person with Alzheimer’s is at his or her best.
  • Keep outings from becoming too long. Take note of how tired the person gets after a certain amount of time. Bring the person home before he or she becomes overtired.
  • Use a business-size card to tell others about the person’s disease. Sharing this information with store clerks or restaurant staff can make outings more comfortable for everyone. For example, the card could say “My family member has Alzheimer’s disease. He might say or do things that are unexpected. Thank you for your understanding.”

Eating Out

Going out to eat can be a welcome change, but it can also be challenging. Planning can help. Before choosing a restaurant, think about its layout, menu, noise level, waiting times, and the helpfulness of the staff. Ask yourself:

  • Does the person with Alzheimer’s disease know the restaurant well?
  • Is it quiet or noisy most of the time?
  • Are tables easy to get to? Do you need to wait before being seated?
  • Is the service quick enough to keep the person from getting restless?
  • Does the restroom meet the person’s needs?
  • Are foods the person with Alzheimer’s likes on the menu?
  • Is the staff understanding and helpful?

Before going to the restaurant, decide if it is a good day to go. If it is, think about the best time to go. Earlier in the day may be best, so the person with Alzheimer’s is not too tired. Also, the restaurant may be less crowded, and service may be quicker. If you decide to go later, try to get the person to take a nap first.

Before you leave home, gather what you need. Helpful items may include utensils, a towel, wipes, or bathroom items.

At the Restaurant

  • Tell the waiter or waitress about any special needs, such as extra spoons, bowls, or napkins.
  • Ask for a table near the restroom and in a quiet area. Seat the person with his or her back to busy areas.
  • Help the person choose a meal, if needed. Suggest food you know the person likes. Read parts of the menu or show the person pictures of the food. Limit the number of choices.
  • Ask the server to fill glasses half full or leave the drinks for you to serve.
  • Order finger food or snacks to hold the attention of the person with Alzheimer’s.
  • Go with the person to the restroom. Go into the stall if the person needs help.

Participating in Spiritual Activities

Like you, the person with Alzheimer’s may have spiritual needs. If so, you can help the person stay part of his or her faith community. This can help the person feel connected to others and remember pleasant times. Here are some tips for helping a person with Alzheimer’s disease who has spiritual needs:

  • Involve the person in spiritual activities that he or she has known well. These might include worship, religious or other readings, sacred music, prayer, and holiday rituals.
  • Tell people in your faith community that the person has Alzheimer’s disease. Encourage them to talk with the person and show him or her that they still care.
  • Play religious or other music that is important to the person. It may bring back old memories. Even if the person with Alzheimer’s has a problem finding the right words to speak, he or she still may be able to sing songs or hymns from the past.

Traveling Overnight

Taking a person with Alzheimer’s disease on an overnight trip is a challenge. Traveling can make the person more worried and confused, so it’s important to think ahead. Here are some tips.

Plan Ahead

  • Talk with the person’s doctor about medicines to calm someone who gets upset while traveling.
  • Find someone to help you at the airport, train station, or bus station.
  • Keep important documents with you in a safe place. These include health insurance cards, passports, doctors’ names and phone numbers, a list of medicines, and a copy of the person’s medical records.
  • Pack items the person enjoys looking at or holding for comfort.
  • Travel with another family member or friend.
  • Take an extra set of clothing in a carry-on bag.

People with memory problems may wander around a place they don’t know well. In case someone with Alzheimer’s disease gets lost:

  • Make sure the person wears an ID bracelet or something else that tells others who he or she is.
  • Carry a recent photo of the person with you on the trip.

After You Arrive

  • Allow lots of time for each thing you want to do. Don’t plan too many activities.
  • Plan rest periods.
  • Follow a routine like the one you use at home. For example, try to have the person eat, rest, and go to bed at the same time he or she does at home.
  • Keep a well-lighted path to the toilet, and leave the bathroom light on at night.
  • Be prepared to cut your visit short if necessary.

Visiting Family and Friends

Spending time with family and friends is important to people with Alzheimer’s disease. They may not always remember who people are, but they often enjoy the company. Here are some tips to share with people you plan to visit:

  • Be calm and quiet. Don’t use a loud voice or talk to the person with Alzheimer’s as if he or she were a child.
  • Respect the person’s personal space, and don’t get too close.
  • Make eye contact and call the person by name to get his or her attention.
  • Remind the person who you are if he or she doesn’t seem to know you. Try not to say, “Don’t you remember?”
  • Don’t argue if the person is confused. Respond to the feelings that he or she expresses. Try to distract the person by talking about something different.
  • Remember not to take it personally if the person doesn’t recognize you, is unkind, or gets angry. He or she is acting out of confusion.
  • Have ready some kind of activity, such as a familiar book or photo album to look at. This can help if the person with Alzheimer’s is bored or confused and needs to be distracted. But be prepared to skip the activity if it is not needed.

Staying Physically Active with Alzheimer’s

Group of older adults playing seated volleyball with a beach ball

Being active and getting exercise helps people with Alzheimer’s disease feel better. Exercise helps keep their muscles, joints, and heart in good shape. It also helps people stay at a healthy weight and have regular toilet and sleep habits. You can exercise together to make it more fun.

You want someone with Alzheimer’s to do as much as possible for himself or herself. At the same time, you need to make sure that the person is safe when active.

Getting Started

Here are some tips for helping the person with Alzheimer’s disease stay active:

  • Help get the activity started or join in to make the activity more fun.
  • Be realistic about how much activity can be done at one time. Several short “mini-workouts” may be best.
  • Take a walk together each day. Exercise is good for caregivers, too!
  • Make sure the person with Alzheimer’s disease has an ID bracelet with your phone number if he or she walks alone.
  • Check your local TV guide to see if there is a program to help older adults exercise, or watch exercise videos made for older people.
  • Add music to the exercises if it helps the person with Alzheimer’s disease. Dance to the music if possible.
  • Break exercises into simple, easy-to-follow steps.
  • Make sure the person wears comfortable clothes and shoes that fit well and are made for exercise.
  • Make sure he or she drinks water or juice after exercise.

Gentle Exercise

Some people with Alzheimer’s may not be able to get around well. This is another problem that becomes more challenging to deal with as the disease gets worse. Some possible reasons for this include:

  • Trouble with endurance
  • Poor coordination
  • Sore feet or muscles
  • Illness
  • Depression or general lack of interest

Even if people have trouble walking, they may be able to:

  • Do simple tasks around the home, such as sweeping and dusting.
  • Use a stationary bike.
  • Use soft rubber exercise balls or balloons for stretching or throwing back and forth.
  • Use stretching bands, which you can buy in sporting goods stores. Be sure to follow the instructions.
  • Lift weights or household items such as soup cans.

6 Tips for Managing Sleep Problems in Alzheimer’s

Alzheimer’s disease often affects a person’s sleeping habits. It may be hard to get the person to go to bed and stay there. Someone with Alzheimer’s may sleep a lot or not enough, and may wake up many times during the night.

Here are some tips that may help caregivers manage sleep problems in people with Alzheimer’s disease:Older woman with Alzheimer's who has sleep problems and her caregiver

  1. Help the person get exercise each day, limit naps, and make sure the person gets enough rest at night. Being overly tired can increase late-afternoon and nighttime restlessness.
  2. Plan activities that use more energy early in the day. For example, try bathing in the morning or having the largest family meal in the middle of the day.
  3. Set a quiet, peaceful mood in the evening to help the person relax. Keep the lights low, try to reduce the noise levels, and play soothing music if he or she enjoys it.
  4. Try to have the person go to bed at the same time each night. A bedtime routine, such as reading out loud, also may help.
  5. Limit caffeine.
  6. Use nightlights in the bedroom, hall, and bathroom.

Coping with Agitation and Aggression in Alzheimer’s Disease

People with Alzheimer’s disease may become agitated or aggressive as the disease gets worse. Agitation means that a person is restless or worried. He or she doesn’t seem to be able to settle down. Agitation may cause pacing, sleeplessness, or aggression, which is when a person lashes out verbally or tries to hit or hurt someone.Older man in a wheelchair with a nurse

Causes of Agitation and Aggression

Most of the time, agitation and aggression happen for a reason. When they happen, try to find the cause. If you deal with the causes, the behavior may stop. For example, the person may have:

  • Pain, depression, or stress
  • Too little rest or sleep
  • Constipation
  • Soiled underwear or diaper
  • Sudden change in a well-known place, routine, or person
  • A feeling of loss—for example, the person may miss the freedom to drive
  • Too much noise or confusion or too many people in the room
  • Being pushed by others to do something—for example, to bathe or to remember events or people—when Alzheimer’s has made the activity very hard or impossible
  • Feeling lonely and not having enough contact with other people
  • Interaction of medicines

Look for early signs of agitation or aggression. If you see the signs, you can deal with the cause before problem behaviors start. Try not to ignore the problem. Doing nothing can make things worse.

A doctor may be able to help. He or she can give the person a medical exam to find any problems that may cause agitation and aggression. Also, ask the doctor if medicine is needed to prevent or reduce agitation or aggression.

Tips for Coping with Agitation or Aggression

Here are some ways you can cope with agitation or aggression:

  • Reassure the person. Speak calmly. Listen to his or her concerns and frustrations. Try to show that you understand if the person is angry or fearful.
  • Allow the person to keep as much control in his or her life as possible.
  • Try to keep a routine, such as bathing, dressing, and eating at the same time each day.
  • Build quiet times into the day, along with activities.
  • Keep well-loved objects and photographs around the house to help the person feel more secure.
  • Try gentle touching, soothing music, reading, or walks.
  • Reduce noise, clutter, or the number of people in the room.
  • Try to distract the person with a favorite snack, object, or activity.
  • Limit the amount of caffeine the person drinks and eats.

Here are some things you can do:

  • Slow down and try to relax if you think your own worries may be affecting the person with Alzheimer’s.
  • Try to find a way to take a break from caregiving.

Safety Concerns

When the person is aggressive, protect yourself and others. If you have to, stay at a safe distance from the person until the behavior stops. Also try to protect the person from hurting himself or herself.

Cognitive Health and Older Adults

Cognitive health — the ability to clearly think, learn, and remember — is an important component of performing everyday activities. Cognitive health is just one aspect of overall brain health.

A growing body of scientific research suggests that the following steps are linked to cognitive health. Small changes may really add up: Making these part of your routine could help you function better.

Research shows that a combination of these healthy lifestyle behaviors may also reduce the risk for Alzheimer’s disease.

Take Care of Your Physical Health

Taking care of your physical health may help your cognitive health. You can:

  • Get recommended health screenings.
  • Manage chronic health problems like diabetes , high blood pressure, depression, and high cholesterol.
  • Consult with your healthcare provider about the medicines you take and possible side effects on memory, sleep, and brain function.
  • Reduce risk for brain injuries due to falls and other accidents.
  • Limit use of alcohol (some medicines can be dangerous when mixed with alcohol).
  • Quit smoking, if you currently smoke. Also avoid other nicotine products such as chewing tobacco.
  • Get enough sleep, generally seven to eight hours each night.

Manage High Blood Pressure

Preventing or controlling high blood pressure, not only helps your heart, but may help your brain too. Decades of studies have shown that having high blood pressure in midlife — the 40s to early 60s — increases the risk of cognitive decline later in life. A nationwide clinical trial showed that intensive lowering of blood pressure (even below the previous standard target of 140 for systolic blood pressure) lowers the risk for mild cognitive impairment, which is a risk factor for dementia.

High blood pressure often does not cause signs of illness that you can see or feel. Routine visits to your doctor will help pick up changes in your blood pressure, even though you might feel fine. To control or lower high blood pressure, your doctor may suggest exercise, changes in your diet, and if needed — medications. These steps can help protect your brain and your heart.

Eat Healthy Foods

A healthy diet can help reduce the risk of many chronic diseases such as heart disease or diabetes. It may also help keep your brain healthy.Indian and Asian women laughing

You should limit solid fats, sugar, and salt. Be sure to control portion sizes and drink enough water and other fluids.

Researchers are looking at whether a healthy diet can help preserve cognitive function or reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s. For example, there is some evidence that people who eat a Mediterranean diet have a lower risk of developing dementia.

While scientists aren’t sure yet why the Mediterranean diet might help the brain, its effect on improving cardiovascular health might in turn reduce dementia risk. In contrast, the typical Western diet often increases cardiovascular disease risk, possibly contributing to faster brain aging.

Researchers have developed and are testing another diet, called MIND, a combination of the Mediterranean and DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diets. According to studies, closely following the MIND diet was associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer’s and a slower rate of cognitive decline.

Be Physically Active

Being physically active — through regular exercise, household chores, or other activities — has many benefits. It can help you:

  • Keep and improve your strength
  • Have more energy
  • Improve your balance
  • Prevent or delay heart disease, diabetes, and other concerns
  • Perk up your mood and reduce depression

Studies link ongoing physical activity with benefits for the brain and cognition as well, although a strong link between physical activity and Alzheimer’s disease prevention has not yet been documented.

In one study, exercise stimulated the human brain’s ability to maintain old network connections and make new ones that are vital to cognitive health. Other studies have shown that exercise increases the size of a brain structure important to memory and learning, resulting in better spatial memory. Aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, is thought to be more beneficial to cognitive health than nonaerobic stretching and toning exercise. One study found that the more time spent doing a moderate levels of physical activity, the greater the increase in brain glucose metabolism — or how quickly the brain turns glucose into fuel — which may reduce the risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease.

Federal guidelines recommend that all adults get at least 150 minutes (2.5 hours) of physical activity each week. Walking is a good start. You can also join programs that teach you to move safely and prevent falls, which can lead to brain and other injuries. Check with your health care provider if you haven’t been active and want to start a vigorous exercise program.

Keep Your Mind Active

Being intellectually engaged may benefit the brain. People who engage in personally meaningful activities, such as volunteering or hobbies, say they feel happier and healthier. Learning new skills may improve your thinking ability, too. For example, one study found that older adults who learned quilting or digital photography had more memory improvement than those who only socialized or did less cognitively demanding activities. Some research on engagement in activities such as music, theater, dance, and creative writing has shown promise for improving quality of life and well-being in older adults, from better memory and self-esteem to reduced stress and increased social interaction.

However, a recent report reviewing the design and findings of these and other studies did not find strong evidence that these types of activities have a lasting, beneficial effect on cognition. Additional research is needed, and in large numbers of diverse older adults, to be able to say definitively whether these activities may help reduce decline or maintain healthy cognition.

Lots of activities can keep your mind active. For example, read books and magazines. Play games. Take or teach a class. Learn a new skill or hobby. Work or volunteer. These types of mentally stimulating activities have not been proven to prevent serious cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease, but they can be fun! Plus, findings from observational studies suggest that some informal mentally stimulating activities, such as reading or playing games, may lower the risk of Alzheimer’s-related cognitive impairment and dementia.

Some scientists have argued that such activities may protect the brain by establishing “cognitive reserve.” They may help the brain become more adaptable in some mental functions so it can compensate for age-related brain changes and health conditions that affect the brain.

Some types of cognitive training conducted in a research setting also seem to have benefits. Healthy adults 65 and older participated in 10 sessions of memory training, reasoning training, or processing-speed training. The sessions improved participants’ mental skills in the area in which they were trained with evidence suggesting these benefits persisted for two years.

Be wary of claims that playing certain computer and online games can improve your memory and other types of thinking as evidence to back up such claims is evolving. There is currently not enough evidence available to suggest that computer-based brain training applications offered commercially have the same impact on cognitive abilities as the ACTIVE study training. NIA and other organizations are supporting research to determine whether different types of cognitive training have lasting effects.

Stay Connected with Social Activities

Connecting with other people through social activities and community programs can keep your brain active and help you feel less isolated and more engaged with the world around you. Participating in social activities may lower the risk for some health problems and improve well-being.

People who engage in personally meaningful and productive activities with others tend to live longer, boost their mood, and have a sense of purpose. Studies show that these activities seem to help maintain their well-being and may improve their cognitive function.

So, visit with family and friends. Consider volunteering for a local organization or join a group focused on a hobby you enjoy. Join a walking group with other older adults. Check out programs available through your Area Agency on Aging, senior center, or other community organizations. Increasingly, there are groups that meet online too, providing a way to connect from home with others who share your interests or to get support.

We don’t know for sure yet if any of these actions can prevent or delay Alzheimer’s and age-related cognitive decline. Still, some of these have been associated with reduced risk of cognitive impairment and dementia.

Manage Stress

Stress is a natural part of life. Short-term stress can even focus our thoughts and motivate us to take action. However, over time, chronic stress can change the brain, affect memory, and increase the risk for Alzheimer’s and related dementias. To help manage stress and build the ability to bounce back from stressful situations, there are many things you can do:

  • Exercise regularly. Practicing tai chi or going for a walk, especially in nature, can restore a sense of well-being.
  • Write in a journal. Putting your thoughts or worries on paper can help you let go of an issue or see a new solution.
  • Try relaxation techniques. Practices such as mindfulness — which involves focusing awareness on the present moment without judgment — or breathing exercises can help your body relax. These can help lower blood pressure, lessen muscle tension, and reduce stress.
  • Stay positive. Release grudges or things beyond your control, practice gratitude, or pause to enjoy the simple things, like the comfort of a cup of tea or the beauty of a sunrise.

Reduce Risks to Cognitive Health

Genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors are all thought to influence cognitive health. Some of these factors may contribute to a decline in thinking skills and the ability to perform everyday tasks such as driving, paying bills, taking medicine, and cooking.

Genetic factors are passed down (inherited) from a parent to child and cannot be controlled. But many environmental and lifestyle factors can be changed or managed to reduce your risk. These factors include:

  • Some physical and mental health problems, such as high blood pressure or depression
  • Brain injuries, such as those due to falls or accidents
  • Some medicines, or improper use of medicines
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Poor diet
  • Smoking
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Sleep problems
  • Social isolation and loneliness

Physical and Mental Health Problems

Many health conditions affect the brain and pose risks to cognitive function. These conditions include:

  • Heart disease and high blood pressure — can lead to stroke and changes in blood vessels in the brain that can lead to dementia
  • Diabetes — damages blood vessels throughout the body, including in the brain; increases risk for stroke and heart attack; increases risk for Alzheimer’s
  • Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias — cause a buildup of harmful proteins and other changes in the brain that lead to memory loss and other thinking problems
  • Stroke — can damage blood vessels in the brain and increase risk for vascular dementia
  • Depression — can lead to confusion or attention problems and has been linked to dementia
  • Delirium — shows up as an acute state of confusion, often during a hospital stay, and is associated with subsequent cognitive decline

It’s important to prevent or seek treatment for these health problems. They affect your brain as well as your body and receiving treatment for other conditions may help prevent or delay cognitive decline or thinking problems.

Brain Injuries

Older adults are at higher risk of falls, car accidents, and other accidents that can cause brain injury. Alcohol and certain medicines can affect a person’s ability to drive safely and also increase the risk for accidents and brain injury. Learn about risks for falls and participate in fall prevention programs. Wear helmets and seat belts to help prevent head injuries as well. But don’t let a fear of falling keep you from being active. Overcoming this fear can help you stay active, maintain your physical health, and prevent future falls.

Medicines

Some drugs and combination of medicines can affect a person’s thinking and the way the brain works. For example, certain ones can cause confusion, memory loss, hallucinations, and delusions in older adults.

Medicines can also interact with food, dietary supplements, alcohol, and other substances. Some of these interactions can affect how your brain functions. Drugs that can harm older adults’ cognition include:

  • Antihistamines for allergy relief
  • Medicines for anxiety and depression
  • Sleep aids
  • Antipsychotics
  • Muscle relaxants
  • Some drugs that treat urinary incontinence
  • Medications for relief of cramps in the stomach, intestines, and bladder

Talk with your doctor if you’re concerned that your medications may be causing cognitive problems. Do not stop taking any medications you’ve been prescribed without first talking with your health care provider.

Lack of Physical Activity

Lack of exercise and other physical activity may increase your risk of diabetes, heart disease, depression, and stroke — all of which can harm the brain. In some studies, physical activity has been linked to improved cognitive performance and reduced risk for Alzheimer’s disease. In general, staying active is known to lower the risk of high blood pressure, stroke, and symptoms of depression, all of which in turn can improve cognitive health.

Poor Diet

A number of studies link eating certain foods with keeping the brain healthy and suggest that other foods can increase health risk. For example, high-fat and high-sodium foods can lead to health problems, such as heart disease and diabetes, that can harm the brain.

Smoking

Smoking is harmful to your body and your brain. It raises the risk of heart attack, stroke, and lung disease. Quitting smoking at any age can improve your health.

Alcohol

Drinking too much alcohol affects the brain by slowing or impairing communication among brain cells. This can lead to slurred speech, fuzzy memory, drowsiness, and dizziness. Long-term effects may include changes in balance, memory, emotions, coordination, and body temperature. Staying away from alcohol can reverse some of these changes.

As people age, they may become more sensitive to alcohol’s effects. The same amount of alcohol can have a greater effect on an older person than on someone who is younger. Also, some medicines can be dangerous when mixed with alcohol. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

Sleep Problems

At any age, getting a good night’s sleep supports brain health. Sleep problems — not getting enough sleep, sleeping poorly, and sleep disorders — can lead to trouble with memory, concentration, and other cognitive functions.

Social Isolation and Loneliness

Social isolation and feeling lonely may be bad for brain health. Loneliness has been linked to higher risk for dementia, and less social activity has been linked to poorer cognitive function.

By taking steps now to reduce your risks for cognitive decline, you’ll help to maintain your cognitive health for the future.

Loneliness and Social Isolation — Tips for Staying Connected

Infographic, Tips To boost Your Health As You Age. Click link for full infographic

Everyone needs social connections to survive and thrive. But as people age, they often find themselves spending more time alone. Being alone may leave older adults more vulnerable to loneliness and social isolation, which can affect their health and well-being. Studies show that loneliness and social isolation are associated with higher risks for health problems such as heart disease, depression, and cognitive decline.

If you are in poor health, you may be more likely to be socially isolated or lonely. If you are socially isolated or feeling lonely, it can put your physical and mental health at risk. Adults who are lonely or socially isolated are less healthy, have longer hospital stays, are readmitted to the hospital more often, and are more likely to die earlier than those with meaningful and supportive social connections.

What is the difference between loneliness and social isolation?

The number of older adults age 65 and older is growing, and many are socially isolated and regularly feel lonely. The coronavirus outbreak in 2020 brought even more challenges due to health considerations.

Older African American woman combats loneliness and social isolation by video chatting with her family on a tablet.

Loneliness and social isolation are different, but related. Loneliness is the distressing feeling of being alone or separated. Social isolation is the lack of social contacts and having few people to interact with regularly. You can live alone and not feel lonely or socially isolated, and you can feel lonely while being with other people.

Older adults are at higher risk for social isolation and loneliness due to changes in health and social connections that can come with growing older, hearing, vision, and memory loss, disability, trouble getting around, and/or the loss of family and friends.

How can feeling lonely or being isolated affect older adults’ health?

People who are socially isolated or lonely are more likely to be admitted to the emergency room or to a nursing home. Social isolation and loneliness also are associated with higher risks for:

  • High blood pressure
  • Heart disease
  • Obesity
  • Weakened immune function
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Cognitive decline
  • Dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease
  • Death

People who are lonely or socially isolated may get too little exercise, drink too much alcohol, smoke, and often don’t sleep well, which can further increase the risk of serious health conditions.

People who are lonely experience emotional pain. Losing a sense of connection and community can change the way a person sees the world. Someone experiencing chronic loneliness may feel threatened and mistrustful of others.

Emotional pain can activate the same stress responses in the body as physical pain. When this goes on for a long time, it can lead to chronic inflammation (overactive or prolonged release of factors that can damage tissues) and reduced immunity (ability to fight off disease). This raises your risk of chronic diseases and can leave a person more vulnerable to some infectious diseases.

Social isolation and loneliness may also be bad for brain health. Loneliness and social isolation have been linked to poorer cognitive function and higher risk for dementia including and especially for Alzheimer’s disease. Also, little social activity and being alone most of the time may contribute to a decline in the ability to perform everyday tasks such as driving, paying bills, taking medicine, and cooking.

How can you know your risk for loneliness and social isolation?

Those who find themselves unexpectedly isolated due to the illness of a loved one, separation from friends or family, loss of mobility, worsening vision or hearing problems, disability, or lack of mobility or access to transportation, are at particular risk of loneliness and social isolation.

You also may be at greater risk if you:

  • Live alone
  • Can’t leave your home
  • Had a major loss or life change, such as the death of a spouse or partner, or retirement
  • Struggle with money
  • Are a caregiver
  • Have psychological or cognitive challenges, or depression
  • Have limited social support
  • Have trouble hearing
  • Live in a rural, unsafe, and/or hard-to-reach neighborhood
  • Have language barriers where you live
  • Experience age, racial, ethnic, sexual orientation, and/or gender identity discrimination where you live
  • Are not meaningfully engaged in activities or are feeling a lack of purpose

People with hearing loss may find it hard to have conversations with friends and family, which can lead to less interaction with people, social isolation, and higher rates of loneliness.

How can you stay connected with friends and family?

There are things you can do to help protect yourself or a loved one from the negative effects of loneliness and social isolation. First, it’s important to take care of yourself. Try exercising, eating healthy, getting enough sleep (7 to 9 hours), and pursuing activities you enjoy to help manage stress and stay as mentally and physically healthy as possible.

Infographic, Stay Connected to Combat Loneliness and Social Isolation, click for webpage and PDF.

It’s also important to stay active and connect with others. People who engage in meaningful, productive activities they enjoy with others feel a sense of purpose and tend to live longer. For example, helping others through volunteering helps you feel less lonely and allows you to have a sense of mission and purpose in life, which is linked to better health. Studies show activities like these may help boost your mood and improve your well-being and cognitive function.Here are some other ideas to help you stay connected.

  • Find an activity that you enjoy, restart an old hobby, or take a class to learn something new. You might have fun and meet people with similar interests.
  • Schedule time each day to stay in touch with family, friends, and neighbors in person, by email, social media, voice call, or text. Talk with people you trust and share your feelings. Suggest an activity to help nurture and strengthen existing relationships. Sending letters or cards is another good way to keep up friendships.
  • Use communication technologies such as video chat, smart speakers, or even companion robots to help keep you engaged and connected.
  • If you’re not tech-savvy, sign up for an online or in-person class at your local public library or community center to help you learn how to use email or social media.
    Older adult holding a dog to combat loneliness and social isolation.
    Credit: Victoria Ruvkun
  • Consider adopting a pet if you are able to care for them. Animals can be a source of comfort and may also lower stress and blood pressure.
  • Stay physically active and include group exercise, such as joining a walking club or working out with a friend. Adults should aim for at least 150 minutes (2 1/2 hours) of activity a week that makes you breathe hard.
  • Introduce yourself to your neighbors.
  • Find a faith-based organization where you can deepen your spirituality and engage with others in activities and events.
  • Check out resources and programs at your local social service agencies, community and senior centers, and public libraries.
  • Join a cause and get involved in your community.

 

 

 

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